Introducing Quotations and Paraphrases

The work you produce at university usually involves the important ideas, writings and discoveries of experts in your field of study. These contributions are always acknowledged by referencing, and there will be times when you introduce other people's views into your work and want to name them in the text. Naming other authors when you're introducing their views into your work can be done with quotations or paraphrases.

When to introduce quotes or paraphrases

  • when you want to use an author as an authoritative voice
  • to introduce an author's position you may wish to discuss
  • to provide evidence for your own writing
  • to make a clear distinction between the views of different authors
  • to make a clear distinction between an author's views and your own

Introductory phrases

Use introductory phrases to tell the reader what the author thinks or does in their text. Consider using the following after you have given the author's name (and the year or notation):

  • X states that . . .
  • X claims that . . .
  • X asserts that . . .
  • X agrees that . . .
  • X strongly argues . . .
  • X comments that . . .
  • X suggests that . . .
  • X comments that . . .
  • X says that . . .
  • X observes that . . .
  • X takes the view that . . .
  • X contends that . . .
  • X believes that . . .
  • X proposes that . . .
  • X concludes that . . .
  • X maintains that . . .
  • X concedes that . . .
  • X notes that . . .
  • According to X . . .
  • As X states . . .

Examples

With Different Referencing Styles

Quotation with Harvard referencing:

Harrison (1992, p. 567) strongly argues that "Freud suffered from a serious personality disorder".

Quotation with Oxford referencing:

Harrison1 asserts that "Freud suffered from a serious personality disorder".

Paraphrases with Harvard referencing:

As Harrison (1992, p. 567) argues, Freud had a difficult personality.

Paraphrases with Harvard referencing:

Harrison (1992, p. 567) believes that Freud displayed symptoms of a psychological disorder.

As Harrison (1992, p. 567) suggests, Freud had a troubled personality.

Agreeing and disagreeing

You can indicate your agreement or disagreement with a statement by the introductory phrase you choose.

When you want to disagree with a statement

Harrison (1992, p. 567) mistakenly argues that Freud had a problem personality.

When you want to show agreement with a statement

Harrison (1992, p. 567) correctly argues that Freud had psychological problems.

As Harrison (1992, p. 567) points out, Freud had a "personality disorder".

A Neutral Approach

Harrison (1992, p. 567) suggests that Freud had personality problems.

References

Hirsh, EP 1996, Writing About Art, Longman, Melbourne.