Citing different sources with APA referencing

This page outlines how to cite different kinds of print-based sources using APA style referencing.

Books

In text

A page number is required if you are quoting. When paraphrasing, or if the information you are citing can be found on a particular page the APA publications manual 6th edn (p. 171) encourages you to provide page numbers to help the reader locate the information.

(Karskens, 1997, p. 23)

Ward (1966, p. 12) suggests that ...

If you are summarising, or only citing the main idea of the book:

(Willis, 1990)

 

References

Karskens, G. (1997). The Rocks: Life in early Sydney. Melbourne, Australia: Melbourne University Press.

Yaffe, D. (2006). Fascinating rhythm: Reading jazz in American writing. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Present full bibliographic details in the following order:

  • author’s surname, and initial(s).
  • year of publication (between parentheses).
  • book title (in italics, capitalise first word of title and subtitle, and proper nouns).
  • edition (if other than the first), (between parentheses, after the title, but before the full stop).
  • place of publication (city, initials of state, if published in the USA; city, country, if published elsewhere) followed by a colon (:)
  • publisher.

Electronic version of a print book

In text

follow the author-date format for standard books.

 

References

If a Digital Object Identifier is available, it should be used. If it is not available, include a url. Place a description of format in brackets following the title, but before the full stop:

Hunt, L. (2013). British low culture: From safari suits to sexploitation [EBL eBooks collection]. Retrieved from http://www.eblib.com.

O'Brien, C. (2016). Education for sustainable happiness and well-being [Kindle version]. Retrived from http://www.amazon.com.

Edited book collections

An edited collection consists of a collection of articles or chapters, each by different authors, but compiled by editor(s).

In-text

A book collection consists of a collection of articles or chapters, each by different authors, but compiled by editor(s). If you want to cite a particular article/chapter, cite the author(s) of the article or chapter in the text:

(Curthoys, 1997, p. 25)

References

Curthoys, A. (1997). History and identity. In W. Hudson & G. Bolton (Eds). Creating Australia: Changing Australian history (pp. 23-38). Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

Place the information in the following order:

  • author’s surname and initial(s).
  • year of publication (between parentheses).
  • name of chapter/ article (capitalise first word of title and subtitle, and proper nouns).
  • In
  • initial(s) and surname(s) of editor(s)
  • (Ed.). for a single editor; (Eds). for more than one.
  • collection title (in italics, capitalise first word of title and subtitle, and proper nouns).
  • page range (between parentheses, after the title, but before the full stop).
  • place of publication (city, initials of state, if published in the USA; city, country, if published elsewhere) followed by a colon (:)
  • publisher.

Journal articles with Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

A DOI (digital object identifier) is an assigned number that acts as a form of persistent identification for online publications. When you are citing a journal article, provide the DOI, if one has been assigned. When a DOI is used, no further retrieval information is necessary.

In text

Author, date, page number (if required):

(Tucker, 1998, p. 257)

(Tucker, 1998)

 

References

Tucker, S. (1998). Nobody’s sweethearts: Gender, race, jazz, and the Darlings of Rhythm. American Music, 16(3), 255-288. doi:10.2307/3052637.

Place the information in the following order:

  • author’s surname and initial.
  • year of publication (between parentheses).
  • article title (capitalise first word of title and subtitle, and proper nouns).
  • journal or periodical title (in italics, maximum capitalisation),
  • volume number (in italics)
  • issue number (between parentheses),
  • page range.
  • Digital Object Identifier (in lowercase, followed by a colon. Provide the alphanumeric string exactly as published in the article).

Journal article without a DOI

In the text

If the page number is required:

(Tucker, 1998, p. 257)

References

If no DOI has been assigned, and you retrieved the article online, provide the URL of the journal home page (if access is provided to the article there), even if the article was obtained from an online database.

Curtis, S. (2009). Come in and hear the truth: Jazz and race on 52nd street. The Journal of American History, 96(1), 264-265. Retrieved from http://jah.oah.org/

Journal article that is an advance online publication

In addition to their regular publications, some journals offer individual articles online as soon as they are finalised. The content is assigned a DOI before it is assigned a volume, issue or page number.If there is no DOI assigned, provide the URL of the journal home page.

In the text

If there are no page numbers, cite the paragraph number:

(Jureidini, 2016, para. 2)

References

Identify the article as an Advance online publication after the journal title:

Jureidini, J. (2016). Antidepressants fail, but no cause for therapeutic gloom. The Lancet. Advance online publication. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30585-2

Newspapers and magazines

In the text

For articles with no identified author, in text use a shortened title between double quotation marks:

(“UNSW gains top ranking”, 1994, February 30).

If there is an author, cite as for a journal article:

(Donaghy, 1994, p. 3)

Precede page numbers for newspaper articles with p. (single page) or pp. (page range).

 

References

A newspaper article with no identified author

Alphebitize works with no author by the first significant word in the title:

UNSW gains top ranking from quality team. (1994, February 30). Sydney Morning Herald, p. 21.

An article with a named author

Donaghy, B. (1994, March 3-9). National meeting set to review tertiary admissions.  Campus News. p. 3.

An online article

Provide the URL of the homepage where the online version of the article is available via search.

Poniewozik, J. (2015, November 17). When TV turns itself off. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com

A privately obtained interview or other personal communication

Personal communication may be unpublished lecture notes, letters, memos, personal interviews, telephone conversations, emails, photographs or images.

In-text

Cite personal correspondence in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible:

(B. Daly, personal communication, August 7, 2010)

(P. Gregory, personal photograph, May 2, 1987)

Note that the initial(s) precede the surname.

References

  • Details of a personal communication do not usually need to be included in the List of References as it cannot be traced by the reader.
  • Before using personal communications, ensure you have the permission of the person with whom you communicated.

Research reports

In-text

As with a book, include author, date, page number:

(Oldsberg & Winters, 2005, p. 17)

References

List research reports as you would a book:

Olsberg, D. & Winters, M. (2005). Ageing in place: Intergenerational and intrafamilial housing transfers and shifts in later life. (Report No. 127). Sydney, Australia: Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute.

Unpublished material (thesis)

In-text

(Ballard, 2003, p. 132)

 

References

  • put the type of thesis between parenthesis after the title
  • acknowledge the university where the thesis was undertaken

Ballard, B.A. (2003). The seeing machine: Photography and the visualisation of culture in Australia, 1890-1930. (Unpublished PhD thesis). University of Melbourne, Australia.

Brochures

In-text

Cite the author or authoring body and date if available:

(New South Wales Dept of Primary Industries, 2005)

(New South Wales Dept of Primary Industries, 2015, p. 4)

References

Brochure

New South Wales Dept of Primary Industries. (2005). Saltwater recreational fishing in New South Wales: Rules & regulations summary. [Brochure]. New South Wales, Australia: Author.

Include as much information as available. author or authoring body.

  • date (between parentheses).
  • title (in italics).
  • format [between square brackets].
  • place of publication:
  • publisher (Use the word 'Author' for the publisher when the author and publisher are the same).

If the brochure is online, include the URL instead of the publisher information:

New South Wales Dept of Primary Industries. (2015). NSW recreational freshwater fishing guide 2016-17. [Brochure]. Retreived from http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/fishing/recreational/fishing-rules-and-regs/fr...

A work reproduced in a book (image, poem, painting etc)

In-text

Refer to the work in the text, then include book author, date, page number:

De Kooning's 1952 painting "Woman and Bicycle" (Hughes, 1980, p. 295) is an example of ...'

 

References

List the book containing the image:

Hughes, R. (1980). The shock of the new: Art and the century of change. London, England: British Broadcasting Corporation.