Common Forms of Plagiarism

Copying includes:

  • using the same words as the original text without acknowledging the source or without using quotation marks. More
  • putting someone else's ideas into your own words and not acknowledging the source of the ideas. More
  • copying materials, ideas or concepts from a book, article, report or other written document, presentation, composition, artwork, design, drawing, circuitry, computer program or software, website, internet, other electronic resource, or another person's assignment without appropriate acknowledgement.

Inappropriate paraphrasing skills include:

  • using the exact words of someone else, with proper acknowledgement, but without quotation marks. More
  • changing a few words and phrases while mostly retaining the original structure and/or progression of ideas of the original, and information without acknowledgement. More
  • paraphrasing another’s ideas or words without credit.

Collusion includes:

  • acting with another person or persons with the intention to deceive. At uni, it is unauthorised collaboration on assessments.

Relying too much on other people’s material includes:

  • repeated use of long quotations, even with quotation marks and with proper acknowledgement. More
  • using your own ideas but with heavy reliance on phrases and sentences from someone else without acknowledgement. More
  • piecing together quotes and paraphrases into a new whole, without appropriate referencing.

Inappropriate citation includes:

  • citing sources which have not been read without acknowledging the 'secondary' source from which knowledge of them has been obtained
  • 'padding' reference lists with sources that have not been read or cited within assignments.

Self-plagiarism includes

  • an author republisheing their own previously written work and presenting it as new without referencing the earlier work, either in its entirety or partially
  • 'recycling', 'duplication', or 'multiple submissions of research findings' without disclosure
  • re-using all, or parts, of a body of work that has already been submitted for assessment without proper citation.

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 See next: How does plagiarism happen?