Common Forms of Plagiarism


  • Using the same words as the original text without acknowledging the source or without using quotation marks is plagiarism. More
  • Putting someone else's ideas into your own words and not acknowledging the source of the ideas. More
  • This includes copying materials, ideas or concepts from a book, article, report or other written document, presentation, composition, artwork, design, drawing, circuitry, computer program or software, website, internet, other electronic resource, or another person's assignment, without appropriate acknowledgement.

Inappropriate paraphrasing skills, resulting in copying the written expression of someone else without acknowledgement

  • Using the exact words of someone else, with proper acknowledgement, but without quotation marks. More
  • Changing a few words and phrases while mostly retaining the original structure and/or progression of ideas of the original, and information without acknowledgement. More
  • This also applies in oral presentations where someone paraphrases another’s ideas or words without credit.


  • Collusion is acting with another person (or other persons) with the intention to deceive. At uni, it is unauthorised collaboration on assessments.

Relying too much on other people’s material

  • Relying too much on other people's material; that is, repeated use of long quotations (even with quotation marks and with proper acknowledgement). More
  • Using your own ideas, but with heavy reliance on phrases and sentences from someone else without acknowledgement. More
  • Piecing together quotes and paraphrases into a new whole, without appropriate referencing.

Inappropriate citation

  • Citing sources which have not been read, without acknowledging the 'secondary' source from which knowledge of them has been obtained.
  • 'Padding' reference lists with sources that have not been read or cited within assignments.


  • 'Self-plagiarism’ occurs where an author republishes their own previously written work and presents it as new without referencing the earlier work, either in its entirety or partially.
  • Self-plagiarism is also referred to as 'recycling', 'duplication', or 'multiple submissions of research findings' without disclosure.
  • In the student context, self-plagiarism includes re-using parts of, or all of, a body of work that has already been submitted for assessment without proper citation.

  Do you know what plagiarism is? Take our quiz and see

 See next: How does plagiarism happen?