Broadcast materials and communications

Films, television and online videos

To cite a film, video, and television or radio program

In text

Include the full title and date of production:

(My Brilliant Career, 1979)

(Four Corners 9 July 2001)

List of references

Include the following details in the list of references:

  • title (if part of an ongoing series, list the episode title first, then the series name)
  • year of recording
  • format
  • publisher/distributor
  • place of recording
  • date of recording (if applicable)

My Brilliant Career, 1979, motion picture, New South Wales Film Corporation, distributed by Australian Video, Australia. 

Going backwards: Four Corners 2001, television program, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Sydney, 9 July.

To cite an online video

In text

In the Overlander's (2007) short film...

The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919) is a German expressionist classic from the silent era...

List of references 

The Overlander 2007, Aboriginal tent embassy, Canberra, online video, accessed 31 July 2007, <>.

The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari, 1919, online video, accessed 20 June 2011, <>.

Audio CD or CD ROM

In text

 Cite the CD title and year:

(Australia through time  1994)

List of references

The bibliographic details are the same as those required for films, videos, DVDs, television and radio programs:

  • title (in italics)
  • year of recording
  • format
  • publisher
  • place of recording

Australia through time 1994, CD-ROM, Random ROM in assoc. with the ABC, Sydney.

Blogs and wikis

To cite a Weblog (blog)

In text

Include author name and year of posting:

(Bartlett 2006)

(Bahnisch 2007)

List of references


  • the name (or alias) of the author
  • year of post
  • the title of the posting (if applicable) between single quotation marks
  • the title of the site (in italics)
  • format
  • the date of posting (day month)
  • accessed day month year (the date you viewed the site)
  • the URL of the blog post (between pointed brackets)

A blog

Bartlett, A 2007, The Bartlett diaries, weblog, accessed 22 May 2007, <>.

A blog post

If you are citing a group blog, cite the author of the post:

Bahnisch, M 2007, ‘The commentariat vs. the people?’, Larvatus Prodeo, weblog post, 11 May, accessed 22 May 2007, <>.

To cite a Wiki

In text

As wikis usually feature user-generated content, there is usually no named author. Cite the title of the wiki and the date of last revision:

(An Essay Evolves 2007) 

List of references

Include the following information:

  • article name (between single quotation marks)
  • title of wiki (in italics)
  • format
  • date of last revision
  • accessed day month year (the date you viewed the site)
  • the URL of wiki article page (between pointed brackets)

  'Freud and science', An essay evolves, wiki article, March 8 2007, accessed 20 May 2007, < >.


Personal communication

To quote from a privately obtained interview, letter or other personal communication


Include in the abbreviation 'pers. comm.' in  your text reference:

(B Daly 1994, pers. comm., 7 Aug.)

Note that the initial(s) precede the surname.

List of references

  • Details of a personal communication do not usually need to be included in the List of References as it cannot be traced by the reader. Check with your tutor or lecturer for their preferences.
  • Before using personal communications, ensure you have the permission of the person with whom you communicated. 

Emails and online communications

To cite an email In text

Include the abbreviation 'pers. comm.' in your in-text reference:

(J Smith 2006, pers. comm. 23 July)

Note that the initial precedes the surname.

If the form of communication is relevant, mention it in the text:

Email confirmation was received (J Smith 2006, pers. comm. 23 July).

List of references

References to emails are treated as a form of personal communication and are not usually included in reference lists as they cannot be traced by the reader. However, if your tutor or lecturer requests an entry in the List of References, cite emails as below:

Smith, J 2006, email 23 July, <>. 

To cite electronic mail lists, usenet groups and forum boards

In text

Include the author name and date of posting:

(Wiggers 2006) 

List of references

Wiggers, D <> 2006 ‘Media and imperialism’, list server, 4 June, H-Net Humanities & Social Sciences OnLine, accessed 12 September 2006, < >

Include the following details:

  • author
  • author's details (eg. email address)
  • date of posting
  • title of posting (from the 'subject' line in the message)
  • format (listserver)
  • name of list owner
  • accessed day month year (the date of viewing)
  • URL or Internet address (between pointed brackets)


In text

 (Lingua Franca 2007)

referring to the speaker:

Jill Kitson (Lingua Franca 2007) reported that ...

List of references

List a podcast as you would a radio program. Include the following:

  • name of the podcast (in italics)
  • year
  • format (podcast)
  • publisher
  • date of podcast (day, month)
  • accessed day month year
  • the URL (between pointed brackets)

Lingua Franca 2007, podcast radio programme, ABC Radio National, 28 April, accessed 25 May 2007, <>.


To cite a tweet

Include the author name and date of posting:

(Gillard 2016)

Use the author's real name. Only use the Twitter handle as the author if the author's real name in unknown.

Enclose the tweet itself in 'single quotes'. Type the words Twitter post, and the day and month of the post, after the text of the tweet.

Gillard, J 2016, 'No girl's opportunities should be defined by her gender. All children deserve the same access to health, education & the future', Twitter post, 7 March, accessed 15 April 2016,<>.

  • the name (or alias) of the author
  • year of post
  • the tweet itself, between single quotation marks
  • format (twitter post)
  • the date of posting (day month)
  • accessed day month year (the date you viewed the site)
  • the URL of the tweet (between pointed brackets)

Facebook post

In text

Include the author name and date of posting:

(The Learning Centre UNSW 2015)

(Obama 2015)

The author name can also be included in the running text:

A 2015 post on Obama's Facebook page stated that ...

Reference list

  • Author name and initial
  • year
  • place the first few words of the post (up to about 15 words) in 'single quotes', using [...] if necessary to indicate that some words have been left out.
  • format (Facebook post)
  • date of post (day, month)
  • accessed day month year
  • the URL (between pointed brackets)

The Learning Centre UNSW 2015, 'November is AcWriMo (Academic Writing Month) at UNSW! [...]', Facebook post, 8 October, accessed 27 February 2016, <>.

Obama, B 2015, 'It’s not about politics. It’s about whether we as a nation live up to our founding ideal of liberty and justice for all [...]', Facebook post, 1 November, accessed 11 April 2016, <>.