Citing Different Sources with Harvard Referencing

This page outlines how to cite different kinds of sources using the Harvard Referencing method.



A page number is required if you are paraphrasing, summarising or quoting directly:

(Karskens 1997, p. 23)

Ward (1966, p. 12) suggests that

If you are only citing the main idea of the book:

(Karskens 1997)

List of references

Karskens, G 1997, The Rocks: life in early Sydney, Melbourne University Press, Carlton.

Ward, R 1966, The Australian legend, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, Melbourne.

Present full bibliographic details in the following order:

  • author's surname, and initial(s)
  • year of publication,
  • title of publication (in italics and with minimal capitalisation),
  • edition (if applicable. Abbreviated as 'edn'),
  • publisher,
  • place of publication.


To cite an E-book

In text

Cite in-text as for a printed book. An e-book usually has page numbers:

Lloyd (2005, p. 262)  or:

(Lloyd 2005, p. 262).

List of references

Accessed online

Lloyd, CB (ed.) 2005, Growing up global: The changing transitions for adulthood in developing countries, e-book, accessed 5 May 2007, <>.

Include the following information:

  • author/editor name(s)
  • date of publication
  • title of e-book (in italics)
  • publisher
  • format (e-book)
  • accessed day month year (the date of viewing)
  • URL or Internet address (between pointed brackets) 

Accessed via a database

Woodham, JM 2004, A dictionary of modern design,  Oxford University Press, e-book, accessed 25 July 2007 from Oxford Reference Online Database.


To cite an ebook accessed via an ebook reader

In text

Include author/date:

(Smith 2008) or:

Smith (2008) states that ...

E-books often lack page numbers (though PDF versions may have them). If page numbers are not available on ebook readers, use the chapters instead to indicating the location of a quoted section.

List of references 


  • author name and initial
  • year (date of Kindle edition)
  • title (in italics)
  • the type of e-book version you accessed (two examples are the Kindle Edition version and the Adobe Digital Editions version).
  • accessed day month year (the date you first accessed the ebook)
  • the book's DOI (digital object identifier) or where you downloaded the e-book from (if there is no DOI).

For example:

Smith, A 2008, The Wealth of Nations, Kindle version, accessed 20 August 2010 from

Smith, A 2008, The Wealth of Nations, Adobe Digital Editions version, accessed 20 August 2010, doi: 10.1036/007142363X.

Edited book collections

To cite a chapter from a book collection


A book collection consists of a collection of articles or chapters, each by different authors, but compiled by editor(s). If you want to cite a particular article/chapter, cite the author(s) of the chapter in the text:

(Curthoys 1997, p. 25)

List of references

When you use an article/ chapter from a book collection, the title of the article appears in quotations. The title of the book is italicised. For example:

Curthoys, A 1997, 'History and identity', in W Hudson & G Bolton (eds), Creating Australia: changing Australian history,  Allen & Unwin, Sydney, pp. 23-38

Place the information in the following order:

  • author's surname and initial
  • year of publication
  • name of article (between single quotation marks with minimal capitalisation)
  • in
  • initial(s) and surname(s) of editor(s)
  • (ed.) or (eds)
  • name of collection (the name on the title page) in italics and minimal capitalisation
  • publisher
  • place of publication
  • page range

To cite an entire book collection


If you want to cite the entire book, refer to the editor(s) of the collection in the text:

(Hudson & Bolton 1997)

List of references

Hudson, W & Boltton, G (eds) 1997, Creating Australia: changing Australian history,  Allen & Unwin, Sydney.

Journal articles (print)


If the page number is required, as it is for summarising, paraphrasing and direct quoting:

(Kozulin 1993, p. 257)

If you are citing the main idea of the article only:

(Kozulin 1993)

List of references

Kozulin, A 1993, 'Literature as a psychological tool', Educational Psychologist, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 253-265, DOI:10.1207/s15326985ep2803_5.

Place the information in the following order:

  • author's surname and initial
  • year of publication
  • title of the article (between single quotation marks and with minimal capitalisation)
  • title of the journal or periodical (in italic font using maximum capitalisation)
  • volume number (vol.)
  • issue number (no.)
  • page range of the article 
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier), if available

What is a DOI?

A DOI (digital object identifier) is an assigned number that helps link content to it’s location on the Internet. It is therefore important, if one is provided, to use it when creating a citation.

Journal accessed via a database

UNSW library offers students access to the full text of journals articles, newspapers, and other publications through searchable databases. They are usually accessed through the Library Resource Database, or through MyCourse materials. Journals in full text databases are usually available via subscription by the library. For this reason, cite the database name and the date of access. Full text databases include ProQuest, EAI, and Wiley Interscience.

Library-subscribed resources usually have URLs that will not work independently, so URLs are not generally included when citing database resources.

To cite a journal article from full text database

In text

Cite as you would a journal article:

(Nicholls 2006, p. 171)

(Holmes 2004)

Articles retrieved from databases are usually in pdf form and have page numbers.

List of references

Nicholls, D 2006, "Does the meaning mean a thing?": Johnny Young's hit songs of the 60s-70s', Australian Cultural History, No 2, pp. 163-183, accessed 11 May 2007 from Informit Full Text Database, ISSN; 0728-8433.

Holmes, S 2004, "But this Time You Choose!': Approaching the 'Interactive' audience in reality TV', International Journal of Cultural Studies, No. 7, pp. 213-231, accessed 3 March 2007 from Sage Journals Online.

Cite the article as you would the same article in a print publication, listing:

  • author(s) name and initials
  • title of the article (between single quotation marks)
  • title of journal (in italics)
  • any publication information (volume, number etc.)
  • page range
  • accessed day month year (the date you accessed the article)
  • from name of database
  • item number (if given)
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier), if available

Journal articles (published via webpage)

In text

Cite the author name and date.

Online journal articles (those available in webpage form only) usually do not have page numbers, so instead use section or paragraph numbers (please check with your tutor for their preferences). Sections of an article are divided by subheadings. For example:

(Morris 2004, sec. 3, par. 2)

List of references

Morris, A 2004, 'Is this racism? Representations of South Africa in the Sydney Morning Herald since the inauguration of Thabo Mbeki as president'. Australian Humanities Review, no. 33, accessed 11 May 2007, <>.

Rowland, TA 2015, 'Feminism from the Perspective of Catholicism', Solidarity: The Journal of Catholic Social Thought and Secular Ethics, vol. 5, no. 1, accessed 12 December 2015, <>.

Cite the following information:

  • author(s) name and initials
  • title of the article (between single quotation marks)
  • title of the journal (in italics)
  • available publication information (volume number, issue number)
  • accessed day month year (the date you last viewed the article)
  • URL or Internet address (between pointed brackets) 

Government publications


If there is no obvious author or editor, cite the sponsoring agency as the author:

(Department of Education, Science & Training 2000)

List of references

Give the name of the ministry or agency that has issued the document:

Department of Education, Science & Training 2000, Annual Report 1999-2000, AGPS, Canberra.

Unpublished material (thesis, a manuscript, an unpublished paper)


(Ballard 2003, p. 132)

(Fitzsimmons 2005)

List of references

When citing a thesis in the List of References: 

  • put the title between quotation marks and do not use italics.
  • acknowledge the university where the thesis was undertaken

Ballard, BA 2003, 'The seeing machine: photography and the visualisation of culture in Australia, 1890-1930', PhD thesis, University of Melbourne.

An unpublished conference paper:

Fitzsimmons, D 2005, 'Who chooses who belongs: tactics and strategies and migrant literature'. paper presented at the AULLA & FILLM conference, James Cook University, Cairns, 15-19th July.

To cite a thesis accessed through a database

In text

Cite author, date, page number:

(Lee 2005 p. 78)

List of references

Lee, C 2005, 'Beyond the Pink: (Post) Youth Iconography in Cinema', PhD thesis, Murdoch University, accessed 15 June 2007 from Australian Digital Thesis Program Database.

Include the following:

  • author name and initial
  • year
  • thesis title (between single quotation marks, no italics)
  • type of thesis (eg. MA, PhD)
  • institution
  • date accessed
  • from database name

ABS statistics


Use the full name in the first in-text reference:

(Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005)

and use the abbreviation 'ABS' in subsequent references:

(ABS 2005)

List of references

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2005, New South Wales in focus, Cat. no. 1338.1, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra.

  • name of agency as author
  • year of publication
  • title of publication (in italics)
  • catalogue number
  • name of publisher
  • place of publication

If you are viewing the information online, include:

  • date of viewing (if viewed online)
  • database name (if applicable)
  • URL (between pointed brackets)

Australian Bureau of Statistics 2007, Internet Activity, Australia, Sep 2006, Cat. no. 8153.0, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Canberra, accessed 11 April 2007, <>.



Cite the author or authoring body and date if available:

(New South Wales Dept of Primary Industries 2005)

List of references

New South Wales Dept of Primary Industries 2005, Saltwater recreational fishing in New South Wales: rules & regulations summary, brochure, NSWDPI, New South Wales.

Include as much information as available. The publisher’s name may be abbreviated if it is also the author.