Quotations, paraphrases and summaries
|To cite a quotation|
Reproduce the text word-for-word and place quotation marks at the beginning and end of the quotation. The author, date and page number must be included.
"Australia is a settler society" (Hudson and Bolton 1997, p. 9).
|To cite a paraphrase or a short summary of an author's words or ideas|
Restate the original words/ideas in your own words. The author, date, and page number(s) must be included.
Wartime textile rationing was imposed through a coupon system, which meant garments now had two costs: their value in monetary units and in coupons (McKernan 1995, p. 152)
|To reference the overall content of a work|
You do not need to include page numbers because it is the entire work you are referring to:
Larsen and Greene (1989) studied the effects of pollution in three major citiies...